182 summarise in one single chapter. The chapter is organised as a collage, presenting short discussions of subjects as diverse as debates over monuments and statues; the collection and preservation of ethnographical and anthropological artefacts in museum collections; the presentation of colonialism in historical non-?iction, ?iction and drama; and the use of colonial motifs in advertisements. This will doubtless be an area for more research in the future, but it is a pity that this very interesting chapter, like the others, did not include full references, or indeed cross references to other volumes in the series (see below). COLONIES AND EMPIRE The production of an ambitious historical reference work like this series will inevitably require its editors to confront problems of de?initions and categories: what to include and what to leave out. In their preface, the series editors state four criteria that de?ine their understanding of colonialism. First, colonialism is understood as a modern phenomenon, which began with European expansion in the sixteenth century. Second, colonies were geographically distant from the metropole; and third, they were administrative entities with a separate political status from the rest of the realm. Fourth, colonial administration rested on assumptions about the existence of fundamental ethnic and cultural differences between colonisers and colonised (pp. 5-6). In the Danish context, these criteria are signi?icant above all with reference to the North Atlantic. Thus, Greenland is considered as part of the Danish colonial realm, while the Faroe Islands and Iceland are excluded. I see no reason to disagree with this, though it does raise a question with regard to northern Norway. The editors are careful to state that this is a history of the Danish-Norwegian colonial realm before 1814; the Danish after 1814. But one imagines that a speci?ically Norwegian colonial history (and indeed a Swedish-Finnish one too) would have given some attention to the experiences of the Sámi people. Greenland was allocated its own volume in this series precisely because of the notions of difference between colonisers and colonised “who were on the whole perceived and treated as ‘primitive people’, ethnically and culturally completely different to Danes and Norwegians”.13 This seems entirely reasonable, but there is little to suggest that attitudes to the Sámi people were signi?icantly different. And although it could be argued that the colonisers they encountered were probably mostly Norwegians, rather than Danes, (and subjects of the Swedish crown until 1905), until 1814 at least they were nonetheless the subjects of the Danish king, just as the populations of Greenland and the West Indies were. For the most part the authors of this book have avoided using the term “empire”, even though one of them, Michael Bregnsbo, co-authored a book on the 13 ”[som] blev i det hele taget set og behandlet som et ‘naturfolk’, der var etnisk og kulturelt helt forskelligt fra danskere og nordmænd.” p. 6.
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