181 The links between colonies and metropole are also the focus of chapters 8 and 9 by Mikkel Venborg Pedersen, which examine the economic, social and cultural in?luences of colonial trade on the kingdom of Denmark. It is dif?icult to disagree with Pedersen’s suggestion that “dealings with foreign goods was perhaps the area where the colonies had the greatest immediate in?luence […] for so-called ordinary people”. 10 This was especially true of the eighteenth century, when the consumption of exotic colonial goods, including clothing, food, luxuries and decorat ions, became markers of status and ident ity for a r ising new bourgeoisie. Göran Rydén’s description of the eighteenth-century Swedish bourgeoisie as “provincial cosmopolitans” would undoubtedly apply equally well to their Danish counterparts.11 The chapter is beautifully illustrated with reproductions of artwork and photographs of objects and interiors demonstrating this “cosmopolitanism”. But what of the “so-called ordinary people”? It would have been interesting to take the story beyond the 1830s to consider the mass consumption of colonial goods such as coffee and sugar during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The same point could also be made about chapter 9, which is about the economic in?luences of the colonial trade. What was interesting here, however, was the exploration of the connections between Copenhagen, as the main port of the realm, and the extensive networks which connected it to other ports and their hinterlands, including of course in Norway (Drammen, Trondheim) and SlesvigHolstein (Flensborg, Altona, Glückstadt). Here, though, and surprisingly for a volume that is otherwise so lavishly illustrated, I thought it was a pity that there were no maps. For readers that know the city of Copenhagen much better than I do, there would be much that is interesting to learn about the colonial traces in the city’s streets and buildings, but here too it would have been helpful to have had these mapped. Chapters 1 and 11, by Uffe Østergård and Anne Folke Henningsen respectively, are written in very different ways but deal with similar themes, in that they both re?lect on the signi?icance of colonies for our understanding of Danish history. Østergård’s argument will be familiar to those who know his work in other contexts, but is no less important for that. He writes that the history of Denmark is actually the history of “two Denmarks”, where the story of the small, relatively homogeneous nation state that was forged after 1864 has tended to eclipse memories of the earlier conglomerate state.12 Henningsen’s chapter traces the legacies of colonialism for modern Denmark in various areas, examining its impact on the built environment, monuments, scholarship, popular culture and everyday life. Colonial heritage is a major area of research in its own right, not easy to 10 ”omgangen med fremmede varer var måske det område, hvor den umiddelbare påvirkning fra kolonierne hjemme i Europa var størst for såkaldt almindelige mennesker”, p. 278. 11 Rydén: ‘Provincial Cosmopolitanism’. 12 See for example Østergård: ‘Myter’; Østergård: ‘The Danish Path’.
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