175 op Brenner was forced to revisit Klagenfurt, and in remote mountain districts of Styria and especially Carinthia, Protestantism was merely driven underground. Ferdinand’s policy vindicated the careful gradualism that had been recommended to his father at the Munich Conference and impressed on the new archduke by Georg Stobäus, the sitting bishop of Lavant in Carinthia.62 Not all of its progress can be based on the successful concealment of long-time objectives. Individual nobles in Inner Austria harbored no illusions about their monarch and predicted that he would ultimately rescind the religious privileges of the aristocracy, notwithstanding his initial focus on townspeople and peasants.63 Nonetheless, the estates restricted their resistance to petitions, protests, and requests for support from sympathetic princes and corporations. Although the increasingly annoyed archduke repeatedly informed them that he would rather risk all his possessions than change his confessional policies, the estates did not give up hope.64 Indeed, the Lutheran nobility was able to obstruct and delay the progress of recatholization temporarily. This may explain why a Protestant was elected mayor of Klagenfurt as late as 1622 and the governmental religious edicts did not unfold their full impact on the Carinthian peasants of Paternion as long as they were subject to Lutheran lords.65 Such acts of de?iance did not alter the fundamental course of events, however. In the end, the Khevenhüller seigniors had to emigrate und surrender Paternion to an avid proponent of the Counterreformation, and the audacious election in Klagenfurt only resulted in an annulment and a severe admonition by the archduke, who reminded the city magistrates that no-one could be admitted to citizenship, not to mention public of?ice, unless he was strongly committed to the Catholic faith.66 By 1630, Catholicism had been restored as the public religion of Inner Austria. It was the dynasty that had initiated the recatholization of the Inner Austrian provinces. The local clergy was weak and needed substantial reinforcement from abroad. Of pivotal importance was the contribution of the Jesuits, whom Archduke Charles invited to his patrimony in the early 1570s.67 In 1573, he commissioned a Jesuit college in Graz, which was regularly expanded until it ?inally became the basis of a newly founded university in 1585. This educational offensive 62 Loserth (ed.): Akten und Korrespondenzen, 1:297. See also ibid, 1:140-149. 63 See the minutes of the diet in Graz of 30 April 1601 in Loserth, (ed.), Akten und Korrespondenzen, 2:185. 64 So, for example, on 17 January 1610; see Loserth (ed.): Akten und Korrespondenzen, 2:560- 564. 65 See Loserth (ed.): Akten und Korrespondenzen, 2:741f., and Meir: ‘Der Protestantismus’, 311- 343. 66 See Meir: ‘Der Protestantismus’, 311-343, as well as Loserth (ed.): Akten und Korrespondenzen, 2:741f. 67 For an introduction to the role of the Jesuits in the Inner Austrian Counterreformation, see Heiss: ‘Die Bedeutung’, 63-76. For a broader examination beyond Inner Austria: Heiss: ‘Die Jesuiten’, and idem, ‘Princes, Jesuits’, 92-109.
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