167 proved ominous for the long-time preservation of religious privileges, Maximilian had already separated the urban curia from the other estates in 1566.30 Thus, the territorial towns and market towns of Lower Austria were not covered by the privileges granted to the nobles and subsequently served as convenient launching grounds of recatholization. In Inner Austria, legalization encountered even more resistance. Archduke Charles II was a committed Catholic who personally opposed concessions to religious heterodoxy; his marriage to a Wittelsbach princess linked him to the Bavarian heartland of Catholic restoration. Yet Charles, too, suffered from a chronic shortness of funds, which only the estates could remedy. The latter had closely followed the historic developments in the archduchy; it was no coincidence that matters came to a head in Graz shortly after Maximilian’s assurance of 1571. When the archduke invoked his prerogatives as delineated in the Peace of Augsburg, the Inner Austrian estates pointedly cited the concessions in the archduchy. If the emperor had granted the nobles of Upper and Lower Austria the right to practice Lutheranism, they could see no reason why they themselves needed to be treated differently.31 Faced with a massive opposition, Charles had to relent and make comparable concessions to the nobles of his domains in what came to be known as the Paci?ication of Graz. Based on their improved legal status, the estates started to establish a separate Lutheran church structure. And since the archduke’s ?inancial liabilities quickly increased again, he had to con?irm and slightly expand his concessions at the diet of 1578.32 During this territorial assembly in the Styrian city of Bruck, the archduke not only assured the estates that they and their subjects would not be prevented from exercising their Lutheran faith on their patrimonial lands, but that he had no intention of expelling Lutheran preachers and schools from the provincial capitals of Graz, Klagenfurt and Ljubljana or the city of Judenburg.33 Charles refused to con?irm his declaration in writing, however, and before long divergent versions of its content were in circulation. As in Lower Austria, the disagreements primarily concerned the status of urban communities that lay directly under the monarch. In many of them, a majority of the inhabitants subscribed to the new creed, but their legal position remained vulnerable. In the end, content and meaning of the paci?ication came to be determined more by the respective distribution of power than by its original wording. 30 Maximilian prohibited the urban curia from acting in unison with the other estates by de?ining the territorial towns and market towns as regalian property. 31 Loserth: Reformation und Gegenreformation, 183f. 32 For a closer examination of the Paci?ication of Bruck and its prehistory, see Loserth: ‘Die steirische Religionspazi?ikation’, 1-57. 33 Loserth: ‘Die steirische Religionspazi?ikation’, 23. The assurance used the then prevailing German designation Laibach for the capital of Carniola.
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