165 in Carinthia until 1566; in Styria, its establishment did not antedate the religious concessions of 1572 and 1578. Even then, this institutionalization commenced on a minimalist level. In order to refute incriminations of sectarianism, the Carinthian estates commissioned a statement of belief, which 26 Lutheran pastors submitted in 1566. Since the Peace of Augsburg had restricted toleration to adherents of the Augustana, the Confessio Carinthica emphasized the Lutheran orthodoxy of Protestant ecclesial life in Carinthia.20 It countered accusations of sowing discord among the faithful by de?ining Lutheranism as an expression of the ancient apostolic and truly catholic creed. Far from being apostates, Protestants were espousing the gospel in its original form.21 Lutheran assemblies also began to develop a provincial superstructure, which was cemented further through the Inner Austrian church and school ordinance of 1578. This ecclesial constitution homogenized doctrine as well as ritual and devised institutional structures and procedures, including regulations for the selection and appointment of clergy. To supervise ecclesiastic life, the ordinance instituted provincial church ministries, but also the diets retained considerable in?luence. Ecclesial consolidation was only possible because Austrian Protestants had secured a judicial basis for exercising their faith. At no other time during the century did conditions seem so conducive. Ferdinand I was to be succeeded by his son Maximilian in the Holy Roman Empire and the archduchy, albeit not in Inner Austria and Tyrol, which were to go to his brothers Charles and Ferdinand, respectively.22 As a rare exception among leading Habsburgs, Maximilian II was rumored to harbor Lutheran sympathies.23 He engaged in reformist conduct, such as the taking of the Eucharist in both kinds. He also cultivated good relations with Protestant princes in the empire, especially the new elector Moritz of Saxony. His court chaplain Johann Pfauser regularly criticized the church and moved from Catholic irenicism to a more openly Lutheran position after Ferdinand had forced his resignation in 1560.24 The entire dynasty was worried. The Spanish relatives kept a close eye on the heir apparent and repeatedly intervened in Vienna. Ferdinand himself may have become less uncompromising than his Iberian cousins, but he, too, was convinced that the established faith had served the Habsburgs well. Faced with intense pressure to conform to Catholic orthodoxy, Maximilian at some point contemplated 20 The text of the Confessio Carinthica is printed in Barton and Makkai (eds.): Ostmitteleuropas Bekenntnisschriften, vol. 3:1, 1564-1576, 39-52. 21 Ibid., 45. 22 For Maximilian II, see Fichtner: Emperor Maximilian II; Edelmayer and Kohler (eds.): Kaiser Maximilian II; as well as Edel: Der Kaiser und Kurpfalz. 23 For a detailed investigation of Maximilian’s religious position, see Bibl: ‘Zur Frage’, 289- 425. 24 For Pfauser, see Neue deutsche Biographie, s.v. ‘Johann Sebastian Pfauser.’
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