151 of deadly sins do not relate to such spectacular elements or to causing scandals demonstrated as prophetic deeds. The deeper reason, however, for the emphatic treatment of these two main topics is that they were closely connected to the profane rituals of everyday social life. The questioning of the veneration of saints undermined, on the one hand, the order of time provided by the calendar, and on the other, the spatial relations in connection with holy places, churches, altars and shrines. The rejection of the fast also intervened with the cyclical division of the week and of the year. Whoever abused the saints attacked not only an article of faith or simply the state ideology, but as a public enemy threatened the everyday life and the order of the closer community. This explanation is supported by the fact that the two issues mentioned are preceded by the following: regular confession (occurs ?ive times): rites, such as bell ringing, morning and evening prayer, feasts (four times); churches, altars, pictures (also four times) – that is, issues which were related to orientation regarding time and space. Although regarding a different dimension, communal life was also structured by church authority (occurs ?ive times) and the clergy (also ?ive times). The spectacular and scandalous rejection of the latter was monks quitting their orders and the marriage of priests. Therefore, it was justi?ied that the followers of the old faith considered the teachings of the Reformation a frontal attack on their familiar world and the destruction of the system of social relations. Only one popular topic is missing from this framework of interpretation: the Eucharist. Also occurring ?ive times, this brought the harshest words to the lips of its critics: trick of the Devil; idol. The preachers of the Reformation were unable just to label this question as “not necessary” or “not commanded”. According to them, this was no longer an adiaphoron, but the key question of true worship deriving from pure teaching, hence in the interrogation of Dévai in Vienna, four points dealt with the problem of the mass. Whereas the rest of the above-mentioned topics re?lected the values and points of view of the followers of the old faith, with regards to this question, the reformers’ opinions as well as their linguistic power come into light. THEOLOGY AND LANGUAGE USE It is characteristic of language use in sixteenth-century Hungary that the written and oral languages often differed, and translation from one language to the other was not such a natural and widespread practice as in later centuries. In parallel multilingualism every language has its own well-de?ined place and function, and is not freely interchangeable with other languages.52 Therefore, a separate set of 52 Kubinyi: ’Ethnische Minderheiten’; Bak: ’Linguistic Pluralism’; Szende: ’Integration through Language’.
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