149 Augsburg Confession. The basic purpose of the legislation was to reform the Roman Catholic Church. This included the provision that bishops should visit the local churches, they should examine whether the priests who celebrated mass and received the bene?ice had been properly ordained; they should check what the teaching was like and place properly ordained priests into service. Thus, all those local churches where bishops or the king’s commissioners found situations which were in contrast with the objectives of the law were in danger. The communities where the Lutheran Reformation had already been accepted and their priests had applied to be ordained in Wittenberg or another Protestant church were especially endangered. Bishops were also instructed to punish those unworthy of service, i.e. those who were serving without proper ordination. Calling to account and forbidding was only one side of the provision, however. The other side was building the Church: the prelates were supposed to place into service in every market town and village parish priests who knew the and taught the true doctrine and delivered the sacraments according to the rite of the holy Catholic Church. Taking all the above into consideration, in 1548 the law in the Hungarian Kingdom began the Catholic Reformation. It is interesting to examine the connection between the launching of the Catholic reform in Hungary and the Formula reformationis, dated 14 June 1548, submitted by the Holy Roman Emperor to the Diet of Augsburg, and accepted. Commonalities are the signi?icant role played by King Ferdinand I in the creation of these provisions and that by the word “reformation” they meant the re-establishment of the Catholic tradition. In the view of this fact, it is completely incorrect to assume that the religious law of 1548 in Hungary provided any protection for the followers of the Augsburg Confession or those pretending to follow this tradition. In order to present if not an extensive selection but at least a representative sample of the language of the followers of the old faith,47 I have thematically categorised the data of seven heretical investigations or reports.48 These are relatively large both in terms of teaching and in terms of time and place. The purposeful recording of data shows great variations: it covered all the historical regions of the country and spanned the ?irst two decades of the Reformation in Hungary. Among the authors of the texts there are not only clerics serving in various functions with different educational backgrounds, but also a lay citizen. Among the heresies presented are teachings that could be accused of Anabaptism, Spiritualism, and other radical schools. It is necessary to evaluate the informants of the old faith. The charge book put in front of Dévai, which was compiled by Johannes Fabri49 bishop of Vienna and 47 Csepregi: ‘The evolution’, 26-8. 48 Sources: Csepregi: A reformáció nyelve, 451-4. 49 Johannes Fabri (Leutkirch/Allgäu, 1478 – Baden/Vienna, 1541): BBKL 1, 1588-9; MBW 12, 37-8; NDB 4, 728-9; RGG4 3,3-4; TRE 10, 784-8.
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