146 ogy of Wittenberg? Naturally, there is no clear answer to this, but that is not suf?icient to answer the judgement of their foes: “He’s a Lutherist!” THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS (1526): THE WATERSHED According to the sources, the Reformation had a signi?icant effect in the Germanspeaking environment of Hungary in the period before the battle of Mohács, but data shows that at this time the movement had not yet crossed the German-Hungarian language border within the country. Thus, it can be stated that until 1526 the teaching of the Reformation was restricted to an urban, German-speaking environment. According to the works of the Hungarian speaking reformer Matthias Dévai,35 the Hungarian ethnic group was clearly only receptive to the theological interpretation of the 1526 defeat at Mohács, namely the critique of the veneration of saints. However, I will brie?ly introduce the ideological and identity crisis following Mohács in connection with another ?igure, Georg Stoltz.36 In the autumn of 1526, the bishop of Transylvania János Gosztonyi (d. 1527), ordered a heresy investigation against Georg Stoltz, castellan of Hunedoara.37 Stoltz was an Upper Silesian nobleman and member of George Margrave of Brandenburg’s court in Jägerndorf,38 who assumed the position of castellan of Hunedoara in the spring of 1526. On 24 September 1526, the bishop of Alba Iulia ordered three parish priests in his diocese to start an investigation about the “Lutheran” aberration of the newly arrived castellan of Hunedoara. János Gosztonyi listed 12 questions for the investigators.39 On 13 October the three priests gave their detailed report to the bishop about the lifestyle, morals and views of the heretic Stoltz.40 The clerics, who knew the castellan well, heard Stoltz call the pope Antichrist; he denied that priests were capable of turning the Eucharist into the body of Christ and propagated the marriage of priests. Moreover, he broke the fast both in words and deeds, he ate meat together with Orthodox Romanians, he questioned the biblical basis for the practice of confession, he claimed that everyone was a priest and could therefore also baptise, and he considered the institution of the church as well as the church made by hand unnecessary. During the feast of John the Baptist, he pushed away the cross that was extended to him, and laughed when others kissed it. He claimed that saints were humans and villains and that their relics were just junk. He destroyed the picture of Pope Saint Gregory the Great with an axe while he was drunk. He similarly reviled the feasts of the Virgin Mary. He ridiculed indulgences, excommunication, 35 Mátyás Dévai (Bíró) (†1545): BBKL 1, 1276–1277; MBW 11, 345; RGG4 2, 773. 36 Georg Stoltz († Hunedoara, 1530): Csepregi: A reformáció nyelve, 113-6. 37 ME 1, 283-8 (Nr. 276-7); Keul: Early Modern Religious Communities, 53. 38 Csepregi: ’Notbischof’. 39 ME 1, 283-4 (Nr. 276). 40 ME 1, 285-8 (Nr. 277).
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