144 The cultural institutions and international relations of the capital of the country Buda were exceptional. Hence, the processes which took place there cannot be projected onto the whole country. Priests, school masters and diplomats28 who visited Buda did not necessarily automatically become reformers. Still, it was of great signi?icance that the threads of many different networks joined in a single point in Buda, including German native speakers, Humanists, court politicians and the followers of the so-called Evangelical movement. These connections catalysed effects, spread news, mutually connected religious ideas, aesthetic values, and political in?luence. Queen Mary29 or George Margrave of Brandenburg30, who were receptive to these new ideas, certainly did not act as initiators or organisers, but lifted the role and image of this network to another level by their mere presence and authority. Their enemies promptly spotted this danger, and instantly found the remedy of compromising “the Queen’s Lutheran Germans”.31 Most of the people sympathising with the Reformation belonged to the mining towns along the River Hron. The seven mining towns of Northern Hungary became important nodes of an international cultural network primarily because of their economic role (the production of precious metals and copper and the minting of coins). Members of the intelligentsia of these cities were brought in part from abroad, but members of the intellectual elite from the cities often found important positions in distant lands as well. The interests of Augsburg’s Fugger house in copper mining played a signi?icant role in nurturing the close relationship between the town and the Holy Roman Empire. According to studies in the history of reading, the cities were at the vanguard of country in their re?inement.32 Extensive data shows that in the 1520s the city councils of Banská Bystrica, Banská Štiavnica and Kremnica employed visiting preachers at their own cost for shorter or longer periods of time. At the root of this practice there was in several places a tension between councillors with tendencies towards church reform and parish priests who opposed it. In places where attempts to ?ill the existing positions for priests with “evangelical” preachers were not successful, the city temporarily provided new preachers. According to the investigations of heresy, the books emerging from the German Reformation were also found in these mining towns, as they were in Sopron and Sibiu. During the time of the uprising in the mining towns (1525), the miners – clearly following Luther’s example – used 28 Réthelyi et alii (ed.): Mary of Hungary; Fuchs and Réthelyi (ed.): Maria von Ungarn; Réthelyi: Mary of Hungary. 29 Mary of Habsburg, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia (Bruxelles, 1505 – Cigales, 1558): NDB 16, 207-9. 30 George Margrave of Brandenburg (Ansbach, 1484 – Ansbach, 1543): BBKL 30, 472-84; MBW 11, 192-3; NDB 7, 204-5. 31 Hein: ’Maria von Habsburg‘, 272. 32 Čičaj und Bernhard (ed.): Orbis Helveticorum.
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