142 Modi?ied power structures explain that these connections also affected church institutions through the exchange of clerics. Humanist networks were formed on this basis between the centres of Vienna, Olomouc, Wrocław, Kraków and Buda. The only change resulting from the appearance of the Reformation movement was the decrease in the attendance of the region’s universities, as most of the students moving on the well-established route up to Wrocław or Leipzig chose Wittenberg as their destination. Hence, the geographical environment of the events and phenomena of the Reformation in Hungary is predominantly the Moravian-Silesian-Hungarian region. Its actors mostly moved around this area and their multiple linguistic-culturalpolitical identities also tied them here. Probably only in one instance does this early history of the Reformation of Hungary go beyond this regional framework and enter the European dimension. This was during the time of the 1548 Diet in Bratislava, when the political power relations of the Holy Roman Empire had a direct effect on the question of religion in Hungary. In the early stages of the Reformation the channels for the ?low of information were the following: books; students; Humanist letters and people traveling, crossing borders and taking jobs abroad.20 The ?irst signs of Luther’s Reformation appeared in Hungary in 1521-2. Banská Bystrica and Levoča sent the ?irst students to the university of Wittenberg (1522). The alliance of Humanism and the Reformation in Hungary was deeper and proved longer-lasting than in the Holy Roman Empire. The country had but a single intelligentsia, and a single author (usually a teacher at city schools, a preacher or a tutor for a noble family) would write both Humanist literary and reformist religious works. The prestige Erasmus had acquired made him the determining in?luence in the ?irst decades of the Reformation. Later Melanchthon was to become the decisive ?igure and point of reference. One could consider the letter written by Bartholomaeus Francfordinus Pannonius (1490-1536), the notary of Banská Štiavnica, on 19 May 1522, as the ?irst example of Humanist support for the Reformation in Hungary. In this letter, the author, having just returned from “Babylon,” i.e. Rome, greets Conrad Cordatus (ca. 1480–1546),21 who by that time had become convinced of the teachings of the Reformation, such as Cunradum nostrum. The letter then comments on Luther’s alleged summons in Nuremberg: “The emperor holds an imperial gathering in Nuremberg, where our Luther (Lutterus noster) is invited too, who is to be blessed by the Lord Jesus, of whom he is the most steadfast preacher”.22 20 Hein: ’Die Ausstrahlung der Wittenberger Reformation’. 21 Conrad Cordatus (Hertz) (Leombach, 1480 – Stendal, 1546): BBKL 1, 1125-6; MBW 11, 303; NDB 3, 356-7; RGG4 2, 459. 22 ME 1, 57-8 (Nr. 56); cf. Csepregi: ’The evolution’, 17-19.
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